Dry cutting is one of the developing trends of metal cutting in the future. In recent years, the industrial developed countries attach great importance to dry cutting.
Cutting fluid plays a good role in reducing the cutting temperature in the work, which is conducive to chip breaking and chip removal, but there are also some problems, the use of coolant, storage, cleaning and treatment are very complex, and the cost is very high. The use of cutting fluid is restricted by the hazards to the environment and the operator's health. The treatment of cutting fluids also greatly increases processing costs, which are often underestimated because they are included in overhead costs.
According to the statistics of American enterprises, in the centralized coolant processing system, cutting fluid accounts for 14% ~ 16% of the total cost, while cutting tool cost only accounts for 2% ~ 4%. It is predicted that if 20% of the cutting is dry cutting, the total manufacturing cost can be reduced by 1.6%. Therefore, the future direction of machining is to use as little cutting fluid as possible, high temperature resistant cutting materials and coatings to make dry machining possible in the field of mechanical manufacturing.
The design of dry cutting tool, the design of dry cutting tool needs to consider the geometric shape of the tool, tool material and coating between each other, can not only through the selection of the right tool material for dry machining, can not only use the coating method to make the traditional tool into dry machining tool. In traditional machining, different machining methods have different requirements for tool design.
Dry cutting tools must meet the following requirements:
1, high heat resistance, high wear resistance tool material;
2, the friction coefficient between the chip and the tool as small as possible;
3. Tool shape can ensure smooth chip discharge and easy heat dissipation; High strength and impact toughness, etc.
The design of dry cutting tools must consider the following aspects:
Tool geometry. Thermal efficiency is the basic problem to be solved in dry cutting. Tool design, to consider the beginning of the cutting process when the possibility of heat generation is small, so we must ensure that the cutting force is small, small friction.
The cutting problem of deep hole machining tool is that it is difficult to remove the chip, so the tool design must ensure good chip removal effect. In the case of small cutting force, the design principles are big front Angle and big roundness cutting Angle.